Oil Filter Change Frequency

oil filter change frequency

    oil filter
  • An oil filter is a filter to remove contaminants from engine oil, transmission oil, lubricating oil, or hydraulic oil. Oil filters are used in many different types of hydraulic machinery.

  • A cartridge-filled canister placed in an engines lubricating system to strain dirt and abrasive materials out of the oil.

  • a filter that removes impurities from the oil used to lubricate an internal-combustion engine

oil filter change frequency - Word Frequency

Word Frequency and Lexical Diffusion (Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Change)

Word Frequency and Lexical Diffusion (Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Change)

This study of word frequency effects on sound change provides a resolution of the Neogrammarian controversy, which for over a century has pitted phonetically exceptionless change against lexically gradual change. Combining evidence from historical linguistics, sociology and psycholinguistics, Betty S. Phillips discusses the implications for phonology and historical linguistics of certain types of change affecting the most frequent words first and other types of change affecting the least frequent words first.

79% (16)

Climate change: A threat for Bangladesh

Climate change: A threat for Bangladesh

Climate change: A threat for Bangladesh

Written by Mirza Galib, Lecturer, Primeasia University

Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge facing the world today. Human induced changes in the global climate and associated sea level rise are widely accepted with policy makers and scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that “the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate”. Rising global temperatures due to climate change will bring changes in weather patterns, rising sea levels and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change poses significant risks for Bangladesh. The exact magnitude of the changes in the global climate is still uncertain and subject of worldwide scientific studies. It is broadly recognised that Bangladesh is very vulnerable to these changes. Indeed, it has internationally been argued that Bangladesh, as a country, may suffer the most severe impacts from climate change. A new report called Climate of Disaster, published this month in Bali by Tearfund shows that, based on past experience, Bangladesh is going to continue to be one of the worst-hit places on the planet.

Scientists tell us that the most profoundly damaging impact of climate change in Bangladesh will take form in floods, salinity intrusion and droughts, all of which will drastically affect crop productivity and food security. We will also face riverbank erosion, sea water level rise and lack of fresh water in the coastal zones. The prognosis is more extreme floods in a country already devastated by floods; less food for our country in which half our children already don't have enough to eat; and less clean water for where waterborne diseases are already responsible for 24 percent of all deaths. Bangladesh is one of the world's largest deltas, formed by a dense network of 230 unstable rivers; most of the country is less than 10 meters above sea level. Were the Earth to warm by just one degree Celsius, 11 percent of Bangladesh would be submerged, putting the lives of 55 million people in danger. Most scientists -- including the UK government's David King -- expect a two-degree increase. It is almost impossible to imagine how Bangladesh will cope with this situation.

Climate refers to the average weather experienced over a long period. This includes temperature, wind and rainfall patterns. The climate of the Earth is not static, and has changed many times in response to a variety of natural causes. Climate change represents a change in the long-term weather patterns. When scientists talk about the issue of climate change, their concern is about global warming caused by human activities. Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earth's temperature, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer Earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans.

The main human influence on global climate is emission of the key greenhouse gases -- carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide. The accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere strengthens the greenhouse effect. At present, just over 7 billion tones of CO2 is emitted globally each year through fossil fuel use, and an additional 1.6 billion tones are emitted by land use change, largely by deforestation. Due to greenhouse impact global temperature is increasing with increased amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. The Earth's average surface temperature has been risen by 0.76° C since 1850. Over the last 16,000 years, the rate of increase in global temperatures has been about 1°C for every 4,000 years -- and yet, some predictions now suggest that we may see another 1° increase over the next one hundred years. In its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), published on 2 February 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects that, without further action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the global average surface temperature is likely to rise by a further 1.8-4.0°C this century.

This will result in a further rise in global sea levels of between 20 and 60cm by the end of this century, continued melting of ice caps, glaciers and sea ice, changes in rainfall patterns and intensification of tropical cyclones. Scientists examined the number of tropical cyclones and cyclone days as well as tropical cyclone intensity over the past 35 years, in an environment of increasing sea surface temperature. A large increase was seen in the number and proportion of hurricanes reaching categories 4 and 5. The largest increase occurred in the North Pacific, Indian, and Southwest Pacific Oceans, and the smallest percentage increase occurred in the North Atlantic Ocean.

Recently Sidr has battered Bangladesh. It is believed that natural calamities like Sidr and other types of cyclone is the output of the phenomenon as the world climate is changing fast because of global warming caused by anth

"No Change In Sri Lanka Foreign Policy" - Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka, Mr. Rohitha Bogollagama

"No Change In Sri Lanka Foreign Policy" - Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka, Mr. Rohitha Bogollagama

Minister of Foreign Affairs Rohitha Bogollagama talks to the Daily Mirror on Sri Lanka’s prospects of future international relations following the end of the decades long conflict and the prospects for garnering support for the development of the country. The Minister also responds to the various allegations against his Ministry and the accusations against the recruitment policy of Foreign Service personnel. Following are excerpts of this interview.

Q: In what manner have Sri Lanka’s foreign relations changed after the war?

In the first place we didn’t have a war in that sense of the word; we had a conflict. We had terrorism in Sri Lanka that covered the landscape and affected the people of our country for nearly thirty years. The government of President Mahinda Rajapaksa was able to counter terrorism in the most comprehensive manner and today the people have become free after 30 years. The scourge of terrorism is not around in Sri Lanka anymore and to that extent the country has come together in terms of a total inclusive process that has to be dealt with beginning with IDP’s their resettlement process and the overall political environment.

Q: Is there a drastic shift in Sri Lanka’s foreign relations with the West, in particular with countries like Britain and the United States?

There is absolutely no so called ‘change’ in our relations with the West. I must state that the conflict was something that the West supported in terms of a resolution [to the conflict]. The LTTE was an organization that was banned in the United States and was proscribed as a terrorist organization in the United Kingdom. In addition to that the entire European Union proscribed the LTTE and banned it as a terrorist organization. They supported us during our difficult times; in seeing that the TRO’s operating in some other countries were also persecuted by the legal authorities in those countries. We also had the facilities in terms of countering money laundering with the support of the United States and several other countries. Canada was very helpful in proscribing the LTTE as a terrorist organization and addressing our requirements in prosecuting some of the LTTE criminals who were living in western countries. France was equally receptive being part of EU and also prosecuted some of the criminals of the LTTE. About 14 of them were first apprehended in France and the trials are still on. Likewise we had the cooperation of other western countries and today we are looking at a wider engagement in terms of our own values being brought into the settlement process and the subsequent political empowerment. In this arena too, we hope that the West will support us.

Q: Can you elaborate on the importance of being in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and what benefits there are of being a partner in a dialogue with that group?

My responsibility as the Foreign Minister is to take Sri Lanka into the centre world stage. And in order to reach that goal, we must be part of a very strong regional corporate entity; that is Asia. Asia is responsible for two-thirds of the world’s population and again it is the engine of growth in the world. After I became the Foreign Minister we have pitched to be a member of the Asian Regional Forum (ARF), which is cooperation in security between Asia and the Pacific. That is why the United States is also a part of it: that’s why Japan has come into it: it is an Asia Pacific relationship. It is a very strong presence of 27 countries in the world. And, today we are a part of it for the first time. Our delegation went to Manila in 2007 to be a part of this process. Shortly we will be taking over the chair of the Asian Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), consisting of 30 countries from the Far East to West Asia which have come together. This combine includes China, Russia, Japan and Australia. We will be hosting the ACD summit in October this year when 30 Foreign Ministers will be coming to Sri Lanka for the first time since the Non-Aligned Summit, which was held about 33 years ago. This is another milestone we have achieved in the last two and a half years. Now we are part of the bean stalk where the Asian and the SARRC regions have come together.

What was left was the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). The Shanghai Cooperation is important because two giants are represented in it; China and Russia. With the intention of becoming a dialogue partner, I made an application last year and canvassed for it with China and Russia and other countries numbering four. Everyone is trying to link with the Shanghai Cooperation. For example India today is an observer and so is Brazil among other countries.

The SCO is a group of countries devoted to political, economic and social pursuits of the people. This leads to cooperation that could result in a free trade area and also future bilateral relations are possible with these giants who are very important to us. Making this an inter-regional cooperation where if

oil filter change frequency

oil filter change frequency

Impacts of imagery temporal frequency on land-cover change detection monitoring [An article from: Remote Sensing of Environment]

This digital document is a journal article from Remote Sensing of Environment, published by Elsevier in 2004. The article is delivered in HTML format and is available in your Amazon.com Media Library immediately after purchase. You can view it with any web browser.

An important consideration for monitoring land-cover (LC) change is the nominal temporal frequency of remote sensor data acquisitions required to adequately characterize change events. Ecosystem-specific regeneration rates are an important consideration for determining the required frequency of data collections to minimize change omission errors. Clear-cut forested areas in north central North Carolina undergo rapid colonization from pioneer (replacement) vegetation that is often difficult to differentiate spectrally from that previously present. This study compared change detection results for temporal frequencies corresponding to 3-, 7-, and 10-year time intervals for near-anniversary date Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquisitions corresponding to a single path/row. Change detection was performed using an identical change vector analysis (CVA) technique for all imagery dates. Although the accuracy of the 3-year analysis was acceptable (86.3%, @k=0.55), a significant level of change omission errors resulted (51.7%). Accuracies associated with both the 7-year (43.6%, @k=0.10) and 10-year (37.2%, @k=0.05) temporal frequency analyses performed poorly, with excessive change omission errors of 84.8% and 86.3%, respectively. The average rate of LC change observed over the study area for the 13-year index period (1987-2000) was approximately 1.0% per annum. Overall results indicated that a minimum of 3-4-year temporal data acquisition frequency is required to monitor LC change events in north central North Carolina. Reductions in change omission errors could probably best be achieved by further increasing temporal data acquisition frequencies to a 1-2-year time interval.

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